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The new policy fomented the rebellion of the Hiberno-Norman Earl of Kildare Silken Thomas in 1534, keen to defend his traditional autonomy and Catholicism, and marked the beginning of the prolonged Tudor conquest of Ireland lasting from 1534 to 1603.

Henry VIII proclaimed himself King of Ireland in 1541 to facilitate the project.

While some possible Paleolithic tools have been found, none of the finds are convincing of Paleolithic settlement in Ireland.

However a bear bone found in Alice and Gwendoline Cave, County Clare, in 1903 may push back dates for the earliest human settlement of Ireland to 10,500 BCE.

The first evidence of human presence in Ireland dates to about 12,500 years ago, shortly after the receding of the ice after the younger Dryas cold phase of the Quaternary ended around 9700 BC, and heralds the beginning of Prehistoric Ireland, which includes the archaeological periods known as the Mesolithic, the Neolithic from about 4000 BC, the Copper and Bronze Age from about 2300 BC and Iron Age beginning about 600 BC.

Ireland's prehistory ends with the emergence of "protohistoric" Gaelic Ireland in the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC.

This released resources and manpower for overseas expansion, beginning in the early 16th century.

Also, the European colonization of the Americas begun by Christopher Columbus in 1492 meant that Ireland now occupied a position of great importance west of Britain, and therefore controlled the routes from Britain into the Atlantic, and ultimately, America.

The Norman invasion in 1169 resulted again in a partial conquest of the island and marked the beginning of more than 800 years of English political and military involvement in Ireland.These divisions erupted into the Troubles in the late 1960s, after civil rights marches were met with opposition by authorities.The violence escalated after the deployment of the British Army to maintain authority led to clashes with nationalist communities.The violence continued for 28 years until an uneasy, but largely successful peace was finally achieved with the Good Friday Agreement in 1998.What is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology.

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